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Botany, science devoted to the study of plants. Botany, microbiology, and zoology together compose the science of biology. Humanity's earliest concern with plants was with their practical uses, i.e., for fuel, clothing, shelter, and, particularly, food and drugs. The establishment of botany as an intellectual science came in classical times. In the 4th cent. B.C., Aristotle and his pupil Theophrastus worked out descriptions and principles of plant types and functions that remained the prototype for botanical observation for 1,000 years. During the stagnant period of the Middle Ages the knowledge of the classical scholars was preserved in the European monasteries and by the Arabs in the Middle East. In the 16th and 17th cent. an interest in botany revived in Europe and spread to America by way of European conquest and colonization. At that time both botany and the art of gardening  stressed the utility of plants for man; the popular herbal, describing the medical uses of plants, mingled current superstition with fact. In the late 17th and the 18th cent. the influence of the ancient scholars was modified by the growth of scientific botany. Through careful and accurate observation the sciences of taxonomy and morphology  were developed, providing the basis for the first systematic classification of organisms, chiefly in the work of Linnaeus. With the microscope came the development of plant anatomy and research on the cell. New knowledge of the principles of chemistry and physics spurred experimentation in plant physiology, notably the early work of Stephen Hales on the sources and manufacture of plant food, which led to studies of such basic processes as photosynthesis. Modern botany has expanded into all areas of biology, including molecular biology, and has developed such specialties as ethnobotany, which studies the use of plants in preindustrial societies. Perhaps most significant was the work of Mendel in plant breeding at the middle (1859) of the 19th cent., from which grew the science of genetics. Allied with experimental botany are the various practical aspects that have developed into specific scientific disciplines (e.g., agriculture, agronomy, horticulture, and forestry).

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  • CalFlora Database - provides access to information about all 8375 currently recognized plants in California, including more than 670,000 plant observations and 20,000 photographs.
  • Dr. Scott Russell's Botanical Links - Variety of informative, up-to-date, plant-related links from the Univ. of Oklahoma.
  • International Organization for Plant Information - Manages a series of cooperative international projects that aim to create plant taxonomic information databases; also includes useful general botanical links - commissioned by the International Union of Biological Sciences.
  • Plants For a Future - A resource centre for rare and unusual plants, particularly those which have edible, medicinal or other uses. The site contains an online database of over 7000 plants.
  • Schoolhouse: Science: Botany Resources - A list of links related to various aspects of botany.
  • USDA PLANTS Database - Plant names, photos, fact sheets, and information on culturally significant plants, noxious and invasive plants, and threatened and endangered plants, with links to thousands of plant-related sites and software tools.
  • World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Botany - Collection of scholarly and research links for plant biology.















Plant Pathology
Plant Pathologist resources and botanical diseases

Biological Data 
This index site covers the spectrum of biological data and services, including links to  libraries, databases, conferences and more. 

Provides an extensive collection of resources and tools for biological study and research. Includes links to databases, tools, institutions, journals,  search tools etc.

Biology related links
Visit here to connect with catalogs, tutorials, conferences, databases and many other scientific and academic resources and links

Plant diseases
Web site related to plant diseases and related topics

Plant Classification
It gives scientific classification of plants and other informations

Plant Taxonomy
Lots of information about scientific classification of plants &  other informations to identify the plant

Images of Plants, flowers
Here are thousands of pictures of plants, flowers, trees, fungi and other vegetation. 

BioTech Information Server
Visitors will find science resources, educational guides, reference databases, publication and many other information services.

Biological Resources
Offers visitors biological, agricultural and medical Internet resource collection. Search by subject, keyword or title, view the table of contents 

American Society for Horticultural Science 
Provides  notes, share data and post publications at the American Society for Horticultural Science home page.

Biology Information Services

Visitors here will find  information on careers in experimental biology, the latest news from the field

Protein Data Bank 

Can search the Protein Data Bank World Wide Web Server. Newsletters, documentation and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 

Flora of Europe

A vast selection of flora families -- from Aponcynaceae to Euphorbiaceae toViolaceae -- are indexed here. 

Directory for Botany

Botany fanatics can access lots  of links conveniently organized by subject at this site. 


This wildflower index provides pointers to online catalogs, institutes, identification pages, and much more. 

American Phytopathological Society
The American Phytopathological Society boasts nearly a century of plant disease research and  Some of its publications are available to the public;

American Society for Horticultural Science
Individuals with both green thumbs and Ph.D.s compare notes, share data and post publications at the American Society for Horticultural Science home page.

British Trees

The trees of Great Britain come to life on the Web through this page that features an introductory guide as well as links to magazines 


Plant Gene Register
An online publication produced by the American Society of Plant Physiologists. It allows you to access a large database of plant genes.

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