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The term science refers
to the organized body of knowledge concerning the physical world, both
animate and inanimate, but a proper definition would also have to include
the attitudes and methods through which this body of knowledge is formed;
thus, a science is both a particular kind of activity and also the results
of that activity.
Science as it is known today is of relatively modern origin,
but the traditions out of which it has emerged reach back beyond recorded
history. The roots of science lie in the technology of early toolmaking and
other crafts, while scientific theory was once a part of philosophy and
religion. This relationship, with technology encouraging science rather than
the other way around, remained the norm until recent times. Thus, the
history of science is essentially intertwined with that of technology.
Science may be roughly divided into the physical sciences, the
earth sciences, and the life sciences. Mathematics,
while not a science, is closely allied to the sciences because of their
extensive use of it. Indeed, it is frequently referred to as the language of
science, the most important and objective means for communicating the results of
science. The physical sciences include physics, chemistry,
the earth sciences (sometimes considered a part of the physical sciences)
include geology, paleontology, oceanography,
and the life sciences include all the branches of biology such
as botany, zoology, genetics,
Each of these subjects is itself divided into different branches-e.g.,
mathematics into arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and analysis; physics into
mechanics, thermodynamics, optics, acoustics, electricity and magnetism, and
atomic and nuclear physics. In addition to these separate branches, there are
numerous fields that draw on more than one branch of science, e.g.,
astrophysics, biophysics, biochemistry, geochemistry, and geophysics.
All of these areas of study might be called pure sciences, in
contrast to the applied, or engineering, sciences, i.e., technology, which is
concerned with the practical application of the results of scientific activity.
Such fields include mechanical, civil, aeronautical, electrical, architectural,
chemical, and other kinds of engineering;
agronomy, horticulture, and animal husbandry; and many aspects of medicine.
Finally, there are distinct disciplines for the study of the history and
philosophy of science.
In India an alphabetic script was developed, as well as a numeral system based
on place value and including a zero; this latter Hindu contribution was adopted
by the Arabs and combined with their numeral system. Important Hindu scientists
flourished in the 6th and 7th cent. A.D. and also in the 12th cent., making
contributions to astronomy and mathematics. Many of these early Indian works
showed the influence of Greek science, as in the geocentric systems of
astronomy, or of Babylonian science, as in their development of algebraic
methods for solving many problems.
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Virtual library science -
Directory of the Virtual Library, an expert-run catalog of sections of the
web, which is particularly strong in science topics.
A Science Bibliography -
Stanford University collection of scientific resources and publications.
British Council: Science -
These pages guide you into UK science, engineering and technology, and
environment, and list services and information produced by the British
Dissertation CIS -
Project to provide access to electronic versions of doctoral theses in a
range of scientific disciplines translated from the original Russian.
EFG's Color Reference Library -
Research resource aimed toward color reference, but includes links to
science, technology, and educational resources.
Essential Science Indicators -
Summaries of new developments within areas of science of key papers,
authors, institutions, nations and journals. Categorized by type of media.
Databases of European research institutes and companies for partner search
within the frame of research projects.
First Gov for Science -
Collection of information provided by U.S. government agencies, including
research and development results.
First Science -
Portal of news, articles, games and quizzes, vidcaps and webcams, humor and
Honest Intellectual Inquiry into Science -
Includes categorized links to general science, anthropology, archaeology,
astronomy, biology, genetics, evolution, chemistry, physics, climatology,
computers, ecology, geology, mathematics, medicine, and paleontology.
Hypography Sci-Tech -
A guide to science links and technology news on the internet.
Lab Finder -
Searchable database for testing and calibration laboratory facilities by
country and type of experiments.
Nearctica: The Natural History of North America -
Comprehensive site including education, natural history, conservation,
environment, ecology, evolution, geology, paleontology, and systematics.
A gateway to selected resources in the fields of forestry, veterinary,
agricultural, food and environmental sciences. Searchable and browsable
annotated database by the libraries of the Nova University.
Refdesk.com - Science Information Resources -
Annotated collection of resource pages for chemistry, physics, technology,
anthropology, biology, food science, genetics, geology, cosmology, science
history, engineering, math, and related online magazines.
Reproducible Research Planet -
Provides information about reproducible research and an open directory of
reproducible research papers. Users can give comments on the RR papers and
review comments made by other users.
STN Easy -
Web-based search engine that accesses more than 60 databases in the
Scientific and Technical Information Network. Includes Scitech, regulatory
information, MSDS, chemical inventories, toxicology, chemical suppliers,
STN International on the Web -
An online scientific and technical information service (subscription
required) that provides access to more than 200 in-depth databases in
science and technology to offer direct links to the scientific literature,
patents, and chemical catalogs.
Scholarly Societies Project: Health Sciences -
Directory of learned societies and associations with members in a number of
different health-related fields.
SciCentral: News -
Science portal includes breaking news from scientific journals, universities
and government sources.
Science Education Website -
Contains to biology, chemistry, environmental, games, higher education,
math, paranormal, physics, space, and technology webpages. Includes a quiz
bowl and FAQs page. Maintained by the University of Louisville.
Science World -
Links to science resources. Also includes weather links.
Science and Technology Directory - AtomDir.com -
Human edited directory with featured and standard listings of science and
technology related web sites.
Descriptions, ratings and links for a few "top internet sites" in biology,
chemistry, computer science, mathematics, medicine, physics, and psychology.
The Science Page -
Links to resources in all main science areas, plus newsgroups, constants,
history, teacher resources and science analogies.
The Scout Report for Physical Sciences -
Biweekly e-zine offers a selective collection of internet resources covering
topics in the sciences, and related fields such as math and engineering,
that have been chosen by librarians and content specialists in the given
field of study.
Virtual Library -
Provides access to a vast array of energy, science, and technology
WebExhibits Catalogue -
Something interesting, every day. Brief summaries and online reviews of an
eclectic selection of science-related web sites.
Carnegie Mellon Engineering and Science Library -
Variety of subject guides, mainly in the applied sciences and engineering,
and links to related collections in other Pittsburgh libraries.
Duke University Science and Engineering Libraries -
Home of the four science branch libraries at Duke University: Chemistry,
Biological and Environmental Sciences, Math/Physics, and the Vesic
Harvard University Science Libraries -
Links to the 19 science libraries' homepages.
J.R.D. Tata Memorial Library -
Library of the Indian Institute of Science, with physical and electronic
collections in science and technology.
Linda Hall Library -
Independent science, engineering, and technology library offering document
delivery services, online reference, and online exhibitions.
MIT Science Library -
Subject and database guides cover most areas of pure and applied science,
databases, and types of materials (including technical reports, standards,
and patents). Also links to the science branches and affiliated libraries.
Northwestern University Science and Engineering Library -
Includes resources for patents, standards, national labs, and organizations
and societies, as well as general links arranged by subject, and other
Paul V. Galvin Library -
Links to subject guides, maintained by this Illinois Institute of Technology
library, in a number of engineering fields.
Public Library of Science -
Advocates the free distribution of science and medical published articles.
Radcliffe Science Library -
Reference library and the science department of the Bodleian Library,
Oxford. A legal deposit ('copyright') library, receiving a free copy of all
British scientific publications. In addition a large number of foreign works
are purchased. There are especially strong collections of older material.
Roger Milliken Textile Library -
The Institute of Textile Technology library, with links to the online
catalog, reference help, and online resources.
Science Museum Library -
A research library, open to the general public for reference. Collections
form a record of scientific, technological and medical change since the
eighteenth century. London, UK.
Smith College Young Science Library -
Links to the online resources, instruction, and general information, with
access to the 5-college online catalog.
UC Davis Physical Sciences and Engineering Library -
Resources arranged by broad subject area include print and electronic
collections, as well as guides to using databases and the library.
UCLA Science and Engineering Library -
Mainly library services and staff information; subject guides in engineering
and physical sciences include both proprietary and free internet resources.
UCSD Science and Engineering Library -
Specializes in physical science, mathematics, and engineering information.
University of Georgia Science Library -
Includes the page "Science resources on the Internet", an index to web
resources arranged by subject.
University of Maryland Engineering and Physical Sciences
Electronic resources include technical reports, preprints, access to patent
and trademarks databases, and other sources arranged by subject and/or
University of New Mexico Centennial Science and Engineering
Offers online resources in general sciences and engineering as well as
special collections for patents, maps, and government documents.
University of Pennsylvania Science and Engineering Libraries -
Selected web sites, resources guides, and e-reference resources for
chemistry, engineering, math, physics, and astronomy.
University of Queensland Dorothy Hill Physical Sciences and
Engineering Library -
Information about the library and collections, and a number of
subject-specific "Findits" (guides to print and electronic research
University of Virginia Science and Engineering Libraries -
Portal to the six subject science libraries (Astronomy, Biology/Psychology,
Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics, and Engineering/Environmental Science) as
well as subject guides to a wide range of subjects and types of information.
Vanderbilt University Stevenson Science and Engineering
Selected resources by discipline, an online map collection, patent
resources, and news.
Weizmann Institute of Science Wix Central Library -
Information about the library and its faculty branches, including chemistry,
mathematics, and science teaching, and links to research sources for
scientists and librarians.
Yale University Science Libraries Navigator -
Links to the online catalog, general science references, and the eight
science subject libraries, including forestry, engineering, chemistry, and
the medical library.