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L.Srikumar Pai
B.Sc( Engg.), MIE, MIWWA, MICI
Civil Engineer & CAD Specialist
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What is Domestic biogas plant ?

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Now a days when the cost of LPG gas has increased substantially and many of the Governments are finding it difficult to destroy or treat the domestic wastes, Biogas is an excellent solution for making cooking gas and manure. Many of the Governments give subsidy for construction of the  domestic biogas plant.

Biogas plants are capable of treating the wastes generated in houses, for producing bio gas and bio manure. It uses waste food rather than dung/manure as feedstock, to supply bio gas for cooking. Bio gas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Domestic biogas plants plant protects the earth's natural resources and significantly lower the greenhouse effects on the earth's atmosphere.

Using bio-methanisation technology all domestic bio waste including wastewater can be treated hygienically and biogas, a very good cooking fuel is produced. This helps to prevent the tendency to throw the waste materials in roads and public places. Generation of cooking gas at house hold level helps to overcome fuel crisis to a great extent.

Anybody can install domestic Bio waste treatment plants with a minimum investment. Local self governments should take much interest to provide financial assistance for domestic programmes. This helps the local bodies to save permanently the huge recurring expenses they have to incur for the collection and transportation of domestic waste to a centralized plant.

The research wing of BIOTECH has developed different models of domestic plants to meet the requirement of all categories of beneficiaries in the society.

The easily degradable waste material mixed with wastewater from the kitchen is fed into the plant through the inlet chamber of the plant. This waste is converted into cooking gas with the help of a special type of anaerobic bacteria. The main component of the gas produced is methane which is a renewable source of energy.

The space required for a domestic plant (1 Cum) is one square meter. Time required for the installation is 1- 4 hours, depending upon the model of the plant. The gas generated from the waste of a family of 3 -5 members is sufficient enough to work a single burner stove for more than 2 hrs everyday.

The return on investment of a domestic bio waste treatment bio energy plant is also very good. A 1 Cum plant is sufficient to save the 70% - 90% consumption of fire wood or other cooking fuels every day. With in 2 years the entire investment will be got back as cooking gas and liquid fertilizer. The benefit from the methane emission reduction is another added advantage.


* The wastes thrown out in houses and the premises including the droppings of birds and dung of animals could be treated in a scientific manner, and the houses and the surroundings are kept clean and tidy thereby the health and hygienic life of people could be maintained.

* By making use of the biogas produced from the plant as cooking fuel, the use of other fuels for cooking, purposes can be reduced and thereby gain financial benefit.

* By using the bio manure for agriculture the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced and the expenses for the manure can be saved. Quality vegetables and grains can be produced by the application of bio manure.

* We can avoid  throwing away of wastes indiscriminately causing grave environment pollution problems.

Barriers and disadvantages

The main disadvantage of domestic biogas plants is the safety issue that the volatile nature of methane presents. Biogas mixtures containing more than 50% methane are combustible. Thus, naked flames should not be used near the digester and electrical equipment must be explosion proof. In addition, the digester area must be well ventilated to minimize the risk of fires and explosions.

Another risk is the potential for diseases to spread due to handling animal waste. People should avoid contact with the digest contents and wash after working near the digester.

These barriers can be avoided by installing the plant by experienced companies

Sl.No. Model of Plant Maximum Treatable Waste (Kg.) Organic Waste water (in litres) Suitable for family members Production of gas per day in cubic Metres
Size Category
1 1 Cum Ordinary 2 20-25 1-5 1
2 2 Cum Water Jacket 3-5 25-40 5-7 2-3
3 3 Cum Water Jacket 5-8 40-60 7-10 3-5
4 4 Cum Water Jacket 8-12 50-60 10-15 4-6
5 5 Cum Water Jacket 10-20 60-70 15-20 6-10

General questions about domestic biogas plant

1) What types of waste can be treated ?

Any type of easily degradable waste such as cooked waste, flesh of meat, and fish, ripe fruits and vegetables and human excreta, urine etc.

2) Is it possible to treat liquid waste in the same plant ?

Yes. The organic waste water generated in the kitchen such as waste water obtained while cleaning rice, fish and meat etc. can be treated. The waste containing chemical, soap and detergent should be avoided.

3) What is the procedure for the waste collection ?

Two bin collection system can be used. It involves the use of two different bins to collect the degradable and non degradable wastes. Use a separate bin for carrying the waste to the plant.

4) What is the procedure of waste feeding ?

Collect easily degradable waste mixed with the liquid waste from the kitchen and pour it in to the plant through inlet tank.

5) How much quantity of waste can be treated ?

The quantity of waste to be treated depend upon the size of the plant. In an One Cum. domestic plant can treat 2 Kg. of solid waste (easily degradable) and up to 30 litres of waste water per day.

6) What is the treatment Technology for waste treatment ?

The easily degradable waste mixed with the waste water from the kitchen is fed in to plant through the inlet tank. The waste is converted into gas with the help of a special type of anaerobic bacteria in a sealed space without the contact of the air. This technology is known as Biomethanization.

7) What is the use of treated slurry ?

The treated slurry can be used as bio manure effectively in any type of solid and crop. It contains high NPK.

8) How the generated gas can be stored ?

The gas generated from the plant is stored in the gas holder attached in the plant or a separate balloon type gas collector can be used.

9) How much quantity of gas be generated ?

The quantity of gas generated is according to the quantity of waste. The gas generated from the wastes of a four member family is sufficient to work a single burner stove for 2 hours, every day.

10) How much space is required for installation ?

The space required for the installation of a domestic plant is one square meter .

11) What is the available size of plants ?

The capacity of domestic plants are vary from 1 Cum to 6 Cum. The plant can be selected according to the availability of waste.

12) How many years are the life a plant ?

The life of BIOTECH plant is 15-20 years.

Contact your nearest Municipality/Panchayat/corporation/ other to get subsidy for this plant

Visit :  for more information

( Courtesy:    and )


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