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L.Srikumar Pai
B.Sc( Engg.), MIE, MIWWA, MICI
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How To Install a Home Wind Turbine to generate wind energy

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The installation of a home wind turbine is not considered very cheap; however, it turns out a huge money saver in the long run when the cost of producing power becomes zero. It has been observed lately that people are implementing wind power solutions even at places with the average speed of power less than 11 miles per hour. Ideally, the average speed of wind at the site you propose to set up the home wind turbine at should be 11 miles per hour, but a slightly lower average is also reaping good results for people. 

One thing that dissuades people from setting up a home wind turbine is the initial cost. However, one can set up a wind turbine at home at a much less price. It is, however, important to consider certain things while setting up it up on your own.

• Get a good plan to make a home wind turbine at home. Keep in mind the output you want the wind turbine to generate.

• Look for sturdy components. Your home wind turbine should not get damaged by heavy winds.

• Compare the prices of the equipment in the market and go for the components that suit your budget and your site.

When looking for a home wind turbine plan, look for the following features:

• Illustrations: Visual descriptions work better than only-text ones. If your wind turbine guide has illustrative descriptions for making a windmill, it makes your task easier.

• Easy language: If your guide uses a lot of jargon and technical information, it is better to look for a different one. Look for one that has easy-to-understand language making your task fluid.

• Component descriptions: Your guide should be able to provide you with detailed visual and textual descriptions of all the components you need to use. It is also important that the guide tells you which type of component works best for a site like yours.

• Local information: If your guide gives you information about the best available equipment in Europe while you are reading it from a countryside location in western USA, your guide is as good as useless. Look for a guide that provides equipment information of places around you.

If you are interested to learn more about how to install a home wind turbine, visit


More information about wind turbine & energy ( India)

 What is a wind turbine?
A wind turbine is a system which transforms the kinetic energy available in the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for any required applications. Mechanical energy is most commonly used for pumping water. Wind electric turbines generate electricity that can be utilized locally or transported to the desired location through grid.

What are the different configurations of Wind Turbines?
There are two basic configurations of Wind Turbines. One is Vertical axis wind turbine and the other is Horizontal axis wind turbine. The horizontal axis turbine has seen technological and economical growth and it has become the commonly used commercial turbines on large scale and the vertical axis turbines are still in the demonstration purpose and small scale applications. Horizontal axis wind pump Vertical Axis wind turbine ( (source: (Courtesy

How much power can a wind turbine generate?
The ability of a turbine to generate electric power is measured in Watts (The rate of energy transfer equivalent to 1 Ampere of electric current flowing under a pressure of 1 Volt at unity power factor). Watts being a small unit of power, kilowatts (kW = 1000 Watts) and Mega Watts (MW = 1 million Watts) are the most commonly used units to describe the generating capacity of wind turbines and any power generating unit in
general. Electricity production and consumption are most commonly measured in kilowatthours (kWh). A kilowatt-hour means one kilowatt (1,000 Watts) of electricity produced or utilized in an hour (To light up a 100 Watts bulb for 10 hours requires 1 Kilowatt-hour of electricity). Watt-hour is the electrical energy unit of measure equal to 1 Watt of power supplied to, or taken from, an electric circuit steadily for 1 hour.
The power produced by a wind turbine depends on the turbine’s size and the wind speed through the rotor. In India, we have the commercial large wind turbines from 225 kW to 2.5 MW. In the global market, 6 MW wind turbines are operating and turbines of 10 MW are in laboratory stage.
Wind speed and a wind turbine size are the factors that determine the power generation capacity of a wind turbine installation. Usually, wind resource assessment is done prior to a wind system’s construction. It can be noted that the power generated is cube of the wind velocity and because of this, even a small difference in wind speed will bring about a large difference in available energy and in electricity produced and therefore, a large difference in the cost of electricity generated.
What will be the power generation in a 100kW wind turbine?


A 100 kW wind turbine produces 100 kWh or units of electricity after running for an
hour, at its rated wind speed of about 12 – 14 m/s. Likewise, a 250kW turbine at its
rated wind speed of about 12m/s produces 250 kWh after 1 hour of operation.

Does wind turbines height affect the generation?
Yes, to achieve more power generation, the turbine should require more wind
speeds with velocity, which will be available in a good elevation. If the rotor is placed
at a height where the flow is least obstructed by obstacles and as the height
increases the wind faces less friction from its nearest surface.
Will a wind turbine produce power in the rain season?
Yes, but the generation will be less when the air is humid and has larger percentage
of water molecules. if the air is dry and has no water molecules, a wind turbine will
produce more power.
What is the life of a Wind Turbine?
Generally, the present wind turbines are designed to last for a period of 20 years. It
can also be designed for more than 20 years, only thing is the machine will be far
more bulky and costlier than what is available now and would be prohibitive as a
alternative to explore economically.
What happens when the winds become too much for the wind turbines?
When the wind speed is high beyond cut-out speed, the turbine stops producing
power and goes into an inert state to avoid components’ stress and damages.
Normally the machines are manufactured with safety incorporation to cater to most
of the conceivable emergencies.
Can we mount a small wind turbine on our roof top?
Yes, small wind turbines are mountable on roof top for domestic applications. Right
now, in India, mostly small wind turbines are stand alone which stores power in
battery and in some of the western countries even small wind turbines are connected
to the local grid. Small wind turbine with capacity ranging from 300 W to 25 kW are
now available in Indian market and gaining popularity.19.What is a wind farm?
The most economical application of wind turbines is in groups of large machines.
They are called ‘Wind farms’ or’ wind power plants’. Wind plants can vary in size
from a few Mega Watts to hundreds of Mega Watts in capacity.
Where does the power generated from a wind turbine go?
Normally, the powers produced by large wind turbines are connected to the state /
central electricity grid whereas smaller wind turbines normally charged into a battery.
Now a day lots of encouragement steps are being initiated to couple small wind
turbine into grid. The power concentrated to the grid can be sold to the state utility /
any private party / can also be used for captive use by paying wheeling charges
Can a wind turbine be mounted on a moving structure and be used to
produce power like on trains, buses etc?
It is not a economically feasible idea to produce power from a moving platform
because the resistance generated to the advancement of the moving platform due to
the wind turbine would have to be overcome by consumption of more power than
that the wind turbine mounted on its top would produce. Hence the net power
produced from the adventure would be in the negative domain.
What is power quality?
Ability of a power system to operate loads, without damaging or disturbing them, a
property mainly concerned with voltage quality at points of common coupling &
ability of the loads to operate without disturbing or reducing the efficiency of
the power system, a property mainly, but not exclusively, concerned with the quality
of current waveform.
What is the India power scenario?
India meets most of its domestic energy demand through its 92 billion tonnes of coal
reserves (about 10% of world's coal reserves). India's oil reserves, found in Bombay
High off the coast of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Eastern Assam meet 25%
of the country's domestic oil demand. India's total proven oil reserves stand at 11
billion barrels, of which Bombay High is believed to hold 6.1 billion barrels and
Mangala Area in Rajasthan an additional 3.6 billion barrels. India's huge thoriumreserves is also a major energy source. About 25% of world's reserves is expected
to fuel the country's ambitious nuclear energy program in the long-run. India's
dwindling uranium reserves stagnated the growth of nuclear energy in the country for
many years. However, the Indo-US nuclear deal has paved the way for India to
import uranium from other countries. India is also believed to be rich in certain
renewable sources of energy with significant future potential such as solar, wind and
bio fuels (jatropha, sugarcane).
In India, 10% of installed power capacity is from renewable, in which wind is
contributing 7%. To highlight, India is holding fifth position in terms of installed wind
power capacity as on March 2011 with an installed capacity of 13065 MW.

What is the state wise installed capacity in India?
Upto 31.3.2011 a total capacity of 14156 MW has been installed, as per
following break-up.
State Capacity (MW)
Tamil Nadu 5904
Maharashtra 2317
Gujarat 2176
Karnataka 1727
Rajasthan 1525
Madhya Pradesh 276
Andhra Pradesh 192
Kerala 35
Others 4
Total 14156
What is the estimated Indian wind energy potential?
Wind power installable potential of the country has been estimated with
reference to Indian Wind Atlas and insitu measurements. On a conservative
consideration, a fraction of 2% land avaiability for all states except Himalayan
states, Northeastern states and Andaman Nicober Islands has been assumed for
energy estimation. In Himalayan states, Northeastern states and Andaman &
Nicobar Islands, it is assumed as 0.5%. However the potential would change as
per the real land availability in each state. The installable wind power potential
(name plate power) is calculated for each wind power density range by assuming
9 MW (average of 7D x 5D, 8D x 4D and 7D x 4D spacing, D is rotor diameter
of the turbine) could be installed per square kilometer area .States / UTs
Installable Potential
Andaman & Nicobar 2
Andhra Pradesh 5394
Arunachal Pradesh* 201
Assam* 53
Chhattisgarh* 23
Gujarat 10609
Himachal Pradesh * 20
Jammu & Kashmir * 5311
Karnataka 8591
Kerala 790
Lakshadweep 16
Madhya Pradesh 920
Maharashtra 5439
Manipur* 7
Meghalaya * 44
Nagaland * 3
Orissa 910
Rajasthan 5005
Sikkim * 98
Tamil Nadu 5374
Uttarakhand * 161
Uttar Pradesh * 137
West Bengal* 22
Total 49130
* Wind potential has yet to be validated with measurements
Installable potential at 50 m level
What is the energy payback time for a wind turbine?
The ‘energy payback time’ is a term used to measure the net energy value of a wind
turbine or other power plant. i.e., how long does the plant have to operate to
generate the amount of electricity that was required for its manufacture and
construction? Several studies have looked at this question over the years and have
concluded that wind energy has one of the shortest energy payback times of any
energy technology. A wind turbine typically takes only a few months to “pay back”
the energy needed for its fabrication, installation, operation and retirement.
47.What are the advantages of wind energy?
The following are the advantages of wind energy
 No fuel cost
 Environment friendly and pollution free
 Potential exists to harness wind energy Lowest gestation period and capacity addition can be in modular form
 Cost of generation reduces over a period of time
 Low O&M Costs
 Limited use of land
 Accommodation of other land uses
 Employment
 New market
 Local Infrastructure & economy development
What are the environmental benefits of wind power?
Wind energy system operations do not generate air or water emissions and do not
produce hazardous waste or deplete natural resources such as coal, oil, or gas, or
cause environmental damage through resource extraction and transportation. Wind's
pollution free electricity can help reduce the environmental damage majorly caused
by conventional power generation.
The most important thing about wind energy is it does not emit Green House Gases
.The build-up of greenhouse gases is not only causing a gradual rise in average
temperatures, but also seems to be increasing fluctuations in weather patterns and
causing more severe droughts. Particulate matter is of growing concern because of
its impacts on health. Its presence in the air along with other pollutants has
contributed to make asthma one of the fastest growing childhood ailments in
industrial and developing countries alike, and it has also recently been linked to lung
cancer. Similarly, urban smog has been linked to low birth weight, premature births,
stillbirths and infant deaths. Use of large scale wind generation will bring about a
significant alleviation to this problems.
n what other ways does wind energy benefit the economy?
Wind farms can revitalize the economy of rural communities, providing steady
income through lease to the landowners. Farmers can also grow crops or raise cattle
next to the towers. Wind farms may extend over a large geographical area, but their
actual "footprint “covers only a very small portion of the land, making wind
development an ideal way for farmers to earn additional revenue.
What are the environmental impacts of wind power?
Wind power plants, like all other energy technologies, have some environmental
impact. However, unlike most conventional technologies (which have regional and
even global impacts due to their emissions) the impacts of wind energy systems arelocal. This makes them easier for local communities to monitor and, if necessary, to
The local environmental impacts that can result from wind power development
1. Erosion: which can be prevented through proper installation and landscaping
techniques. Erosion can be a concern in certain habitats such as the desert, where a
hard-packed soil surface must be disturbed to install wind turbines.
2. Bird and Bat kills: Birds and bats occasionally collide with wind turbines, as they
do with other tall structures such as buildings. Wind’s overall impact on birds is low
compared with other human-related sources of avian mortality. No matter how
extensively wind is developed in the future, bird deaths from wind energy are unlikely
to ever reach as high as 1% of those from other human-related sources such as
hunters, buildings, and vehicles. The number of accidents caused by wind is very
negligible. Still, areas that are commonly used by threatened or endangered species
should be regarded as unsuitable for wind development.
3. Visual impacts: This can be minimized through careful design of a wind power
plant using turbines of the same size and type and spacing them uniformly generally
results in a wind Plant that satisfies most aesthetic concerns. Computer simulation is
helpful in evaluating visual impacts before construction begins.
4. Noise: This was an issue with some early wind turbine designs, but it has been
largely eliminated as a problem through improved engineering and through
appropriate use of setbacks from nearby residences. Aerodynamic noise has been
reduced by adjusting the thickness of the blades' trailing edges and by orienting
blades upwind of the turbine tower. A small amount of noise is generated by the
mechanical components of the turbine. A wind turbine 250 meters from a residence
is no noisier than a kitchen refrigeratorComparison of noise levels through various sources. Source: AWEA
Will the wind turbine erected near my house cause any trouble to us?
Wind turbine erection and commissioning is strictly as per the rules and regulations
laid out by the state electricity boards and a NOC (No objection Certificate) to erect
is always given only after affirmation by the agency that it will be the cause of
consternation to local human habitats.
Where can I get the wind power density map of India?
You can download it from
Is Ministry organizing some training courses on wind ?
C-WET, an autonomous institution of Ministry has successfully organized seven
international and ten national training courses which includes one special training
course for officials from MNRE, KREDA & LREDA and a special international training
course for AOI engineers from Egypt. The unit has so far trained about 700 national
and 100 international participants from 35 countries.
The programs cover all aspects of wind energy generation from technology,
installation, foundations, operations and maintenance, financing, wind resource
assessments, clean development mechanism etc. The course materials of these
programs are well sought after by all stake holders who intend to contribute to the
wind energy sector. For activities such as risk assessment, in more employment and
feasibility studies, talent with a background in finance and economics is necessary.
C-WET includes topics of importance to such people in its training programmes. In
general the national training programmes are intensive 2 to 3 days programme with
most of the faculty drawn from C-WET and a few experts from Industry and
Academia. The duration of international courses are usually 2 to 3 weeks involving
factory visits, wind farm visits, hands on tutorials and field demonstrations.
C-WET usually conduct two national and two international training courses every
year. Notification about the training programmes can be seen at /

How many sites in the country have been considered suitable for
setting up commercial wind power projects:
An annual mean wind power density greater than 200 watts/ m

at 50 m height has
been recorded at 233 wind monitoring stations, covering sites in 14 States/UTs, viz.
Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan,
Lakshdweep, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman &
Nicobar,Jammu and Kashmir and Uttaranchal. These sites could be considered
suitable for setting up commercial wind power projects.
What are the details of the present buy back rate of wind power in different States?
The details of buy back rates for wind power in different States is given below:
State Buy back rate (Rs.per Kwh)
Andhra Pradesh 3.50
Karnataka 3.70
Madhya Pradesh 4.35
Maharashtra 2.86-4.29
Rajasthan 4.08/3.87
Tamil Nadu 3.39
Gujarat 3.50
Kerala 3.14
Punjab 4.23
Harayana 4.27
What are the details of Central Financial Assistance for setting up of wind power projects?
There is no capital subsidy for setting up of wind power projects. The capacity additions
has been achieved through commercial projects by private investors. The government
provides fiscal incentives such as 80% accelerated depreciation, 10 years tax holiday on
income from generation from wind power projects, concessional custom duty on import of
specified components, excise duty exemption for manufacture of wind electric generators
and parts thereof, etc. This apart, preferential tariff is being provided to increase windenergy generation in the potential States. Recently, a generation based incentive (GBI)
scheme has been introduced.

For more information read More



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